AGS4.7

श्राद्धाधिकारः

अथातः पार्वणे श्राद्धे काम्य आभ्युदयिक एकोद्दिष्टे वा ॥ १ ॥

Now (अथातः) (will be explained the rites to be performed on the day of) a pārvaṇa śrāddha (पार्वणे श्राद्धे), kāmya (काम्ये), ābhyudayika (आभ्युदयिके), or ekoddiṣṭa (एकोद्दिष्टे वा).

Note: The types of śrāddha mentioned are:

  • pārvaṇa – performed on the new moon day
  • kāmya – performed to fulfill some desire
  • ābhyudayika – performed for attaining prosperity
  • ekoddiṣṭa – performed for one recently deceased person only

ब्राह्मणान्श्रुतशीलवृत्तसम्पन्नानेकेन वा काले ज्ञापितान्स्नातान्कृतपच्छौचानाचान्तानुदङ्‍मुखान् पितृदेववत् उपवेश्यैकैकमेकैकभ्य द्वौद्वौ त्रींस्त्रीन्वा वृद्धौ फलभूयस्त्वं न त्वेवैकं सर्वेषाम् ॥ २ ॥ 

Having seated (उपवेश्य) the brāhmaṇas (ब्राह्मणान्) endowed with learning, character, and good conduct (श्रुतशीलवृत्तसम्पन्नान्), or with one of these characteristics (एकेन वा), invited to come at the right time (काले ज्ञापितान्), who have taken a bath (स्नातान्), washed their feet (कृतपच्छौचान्), performed ācamana (आचान्तान्), facing north (उदङ्‍मुखान्), as representatives of ancestors (पितृदेववत्) – one for each ancestor (एकैकम् एकैकेभ्यः), or two (द्वौ द्वौ), or three (त्रीन् त्रीन् वा) (for each ancestor), (the śrāddha ceremony should be performed). The more (वृद्धौ) (the number of brāhmaṇas), the greater will be the reward (फलभूयस्त्वं), not just one (न तु एव एकम्) (for each ancestor) – (this is the opinion) of all (सर्वेषाम्) (teachers).

काममनाद्ये ॥ ३ ॥

In other cases (अनाद्ये), (the number of brāhmaṇas to be fed) is according to one’s wish (कामम्).

Note: अनाद्ये means “other than the first mentioned”, i.e. the pārvaṇa śrāddha, or it could mean the first śrāddha performed for a deceased person

पिण्डैर्व्याख्यातम् ॥ ४ ॥

(The śrāddha) has been explained (व्याख्यातम्) in the piṇḍa ceremonies (in ASS 2.6 as part of the śrauta rituals).

अपः प्रदाय ॥ ५ ॥

Having given (प्रदाय) water (अपः) (to the brāhmaṇas),

Note: The commentator clarifies that all śrāddha rituals should be performed by facing the south-eastern direction and wearing the sacred thread on the right shoulder – आग्नेयीमुखः प्राचीनावीति पितृकर्म कुर्यात् ।

दर्भान्द्विगुणभुग्नानासनं प्रदाय ॥ ६ ॥

Having placed (प्रदाय) darbha blades (दर्भान्) broken into two (द्विगुणभुग्नान्) on their seats (आसनम्),

Note: The commentator says that आसनम् should be interpreted as आसनेषु ।

अपः प्रदाय ॥ ७ ॥

Having (again) given (प्रदाय) water (अपः) (to the brāhmaṇas),

तैजसाश्ममयमृण्मयेषु त्रिषु पात्रेष्वेकद्रव्येषु वा दर्भान्तर्हितेष्वप आसिच्य ’शन्नो देवीरभिष्टय’ इत्यनुमन्त्रितासु तिलानावपति ’तिलोऽसि सोमदेवत्यो गोसवे देवनिर्मितः । प्रत्नवद्भिः प्रत्तः स्वधया पितॄनिमाँल्लोकान्प्रीणयाहि नः स्वधा नम’ इति ॥ ८ ॥

Having filled water (अपः आसिच्य) in three vessels (त्रिषु पात्रेषु) made of metal, stone, and earth (तैजसाश्ममयमृण्मयेषु) or made of a single material (एकद्रव्येषु वा) in which darbha grass has been placed (दर्भान्तर्हितेषु), and having consecrated (अनुमन्त्रितासु) (the water vessels) with (इति) ’शन्नो देवीरभिष्टये’ (RV 10.9.4)  he puts sesame seeds (तिलान्) into them (आवपति) while reciting ’तिलोऽसि सोमदेवत्यो गोसवे देवनिर्मितः । प्रत्नवद्भिः प्रत्तः स्वधया पितॄनिमाँल्लोकान्प्रीणयाहि नः स्वधा नमः’.

Note: The source of this mantra is not known.  The meaning is – ‘You are the sesame (तिलः असि) whose deity is soma (सोमदेवत्यः) (moon); you have been created by the gods (देवनिर्मितः) for the gosava sacrifice (गोसवे). You have been offered (प्रत्तः) using svadhā (स्वधया) by the ancients (प्रत्नवद्भिः) to the ancestors (पितॄन्); gratify (प्रीणयाहि) these worlds (इमान् लोकान्)! Salutations (नमः) and svadhā (स्वधा)!

Note: Offerings to the gods are accompanied by svāhā and to the ancestors by svadhā .

प्रसव्येन ॥ ९ ॥

(All ancestral rites must be performed) using the left (प्रसव्येन) [hand, direction, etc.]

इतरपाण्यङ्‍गुष्ठान्तरेणोपवीतित्वाद्दक्षिणेन वा सव्योपगृहीतेन ’पितरिदं ते अर्घ्यं पितामहेदं ते अर्घ्यं प्रपितामहेदं ते अर्घ्यम्’ इति ॥ १० ॥

Being an upavītī (see below) (उपवीतित्वात्), using the space next to the thumb of the other (left) hand (इतरपाण्यङ्‍गुष्ठान्तरेण), or (वा) by the right hand (दक्षिणेन) held by the left (सव्योपगृहीतेन), (he offers arghya thus) (इति) – O father (पितः)! This arghya is for you (इदम् ते अर्घ्यम्), O grandfather (पितामह)! This arghya is for you (इदम् ते अर्घ्यम्), O great-grandfather (प्रपितामह)! This arghya is for you (इदम् ते अर्घ्यम्)!

Note: The commentator makes an interesting clarification: येन पाणिना कर्म करोति दक्षिणेन वा सव्येन वा तस्मिन्नंसे यज्ञोपवीते स्थिते प्राचीनावीती भवति । ततोऽन्यस्मिन्नंसे स्थित उपवीती भवति  – when the yajñopavīta is on the same shoulder as the hand performing the action, whether right or left, the performer is considered to be prācināvītī; if on the other shoulder then he is considered to be upavītī.

अप्पूर्वम् ॥ ११ ॥

(The arghya offering) is preceded by an offering of water (अप्पूर्वम्).

ताः प्रतिग्राहयिष्यन्सकृत्सकृत्स्वधा अर्घ्या इति ॥ १२ ॥

While offering (ताः प्रतिग्राहयिष्यन्) (the arghya  waters to the brāhmaṇas), he should say once each time (सकृत् सकृत्) – ’स्वधा अर्घ्याः’ ।

प्रसृष्टा अनुमन्त्रयेत ’या दिव्या आपः पृथिवी सम्बभूवुर्या अन्तरिक्ष्या उत पारिथिवीयाः । हिरण्यवर्णा यज्ञियास्ता न आपः शंस्योना भवन्तु’ इति संस्रवान्समवनीय ताभिरद्भिः पुत्रकामो मुखमनक्ति ॥ १३ ॥

He should sanctify (अनुमन्त्रयेत) the released (प्रसृष्टाः) (arghya  waters) by the mantra (इति) – ’Those divine waters (या दिव्याः आपः) originated from the earth (पृथिवी सम्बभूवुः), those from the atmosphere (या अन्तरिक्ष्याः), and those that belong to the earth (उत पार्थिवीः याः), which are golden in color (हिरण्यवर्णाः), and suitable for sacrifice (यज्ञियाः) – may those waters (ताः आपः) be (भवन्तु) peaceful (शम्) and pleasing (स्योना) to us (नः)!’ Then collecting (समवनीय) the water left over (संस्रावन्) (in the arghya vessel), if he is desirous of a son (पुत्रकामः), wipes his face (मुखम् अनक्ति) with those waters (ताभिः अद्भिः).

नोद्धरेत्प्रथमं पात्रं पितॄणामर्घ्यपातितम् । आवृतास्तत्र तिष्ठन्ति पितरः शौनकोऽब्रवीत् ॥ १४ ॥

He should not take away (न उद्धरेत्) the vessel (पात्रम्) from which the arghya  waters have been poured out (अर्घ्यपातितम्) for the ancestors (पितॄणाम्) (till the end of the śrāddha ceremony) (because) the ancestors dwell there (तत्र तिष्ठन्ति) hidden (आवृताः) – this is what Śaunaka (शौनकः) has said (अब्रवीत्).

Note: Śaunaka  was the guru of Āśvalāyana.


AGS    AGS4.6     AGS4.8
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