Nirukta1.14

यथो हि नु वा एतत् तद् यत्र स्वरसंस्कारौ समर्थौ प्रादेशिकेन विकारेणान्वितौ स्यातां सर्वं प्रादेशिकमित्येवं सत्यनुपालम्भ एष भवति ।

As to the following position (यथो हि नि वा तद् एतद्) that all words where the accent and grammatical form are regular (यत्र स्वरसंस्कारौ समर्थौ) and the modifications of the roots is according to rules (प्रादेशिकेन विकारेण अन्वितौ स्याताम्) are derived from verbal roots (सर्वं प्रादिशिकम्) – in this case (एवम् सति) there is no objection (एषः अनुपालम्भः भवति) (i.e. we are in agreement with this position).

यथो एतद् यः कश्च तत्कर्म कुर्यात् सर्वं तत् सत्त्वं तथाचक्षीरनिति पश्यामः समानकर्मणां नामधेयप्रतिलम्भमेकेषां नैकेषां यथा तक्षा परिव्राजको जीवनो भूमिज इति । एतेनैवोत्तरः प्रत्युक्तः ।

As to the position (यथो एतद्) that whoever performs a particular action (यः कः च तत्कर्म कुर्यात्) should be named according to the action performed (तत् सर्वं सत्त्वं तथा आचक्षीरन् इति) – we see (पश्यामः) that in some cases (एकेषाम्) the name corresponds to the common activity performed (समानकर्मणां नामधेयप्रतिलम्भम्) but not in other cases (न एकेषाम्), for example (यथा) carpenter (तक्षा), wandering ascetic (परिव्राजकः), sugarcane juice (जीवनः), and the planet Mars (भूमिजः) (see notes below). By this alone (एतेन एव), the following position is also refuted (उत्तरः प्रत्युक्तः).

Notes

  • तक्षा meaning “carpenter” and परिव्राजकः meaning “wandering ascetic” are cases where all persons performing that action will be referred to by the corresponding name
  • जीवनः (literally, “that which gives life”) means “sugarcane juice”, and भूमिजः (literally, “that which is born of the earth”) means “Mars” where the name does not apply to anything that performs the action but is used in a conventional sense

यथो एतद् यथा चापि प्रतीतार्थानि स्युस्तथैनाम्याक्षीरन्निति सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोऽप्यैकपदिका यथा व्रततिर्दमूना जाट्य आट्णारो जागरूको दर्विहोमीति ।

As to the position (यथो एतद्) that substantives should be named (नामानि आचक्षीरन्) in such a way (तथा) that their meanings are clearly expressed (यथा च अपि प्रतीतार्थानि स्युः), (we say) that there are infrequently used single (i.e. not compound) words (अल्पप्रयोगाः एकपदिकाः सन्ति) with kṛt affixes (कृतः) (whose meaning is not clear) such as व्रततिः (creeper), दमूनाः (guest, Agni), जाट्यः (one with matted locks), आट्णारः (wanderer), जागरूकः (wakeful), and दर्वीहोमः (one who makes offerings with a spoon).

यथो एतन्निष्पन्नेऽभिव्याहारेऽभिविचारयन्तीति भवति हि निष्पन्नेऽभिव्याहरे योगपरीष्टिः । प्रथनात्पृथिवीत्याहुः । क एनामप्रथयिष्यत् किम् आधारश्चेति । अथ वै दर्शनेन पृथुः । अप्रथिता चेदप्यन्यैः । अथाप्येवं सर्व एव दृष्टप्रवादा उपालभ्यन्ते ।

As to the observation (यथो एतद्) that people make fanciful derivations (अभिविचारयन्ति इति) of words in established use (निष्पन्ने अभिव्याहरे) , (we say that) etymological examination can be performed (योतपरीष्टिः भवति हि) even for words in established use (निष्पन्ने अभिव्याहरे). (For example), they say that (आहुः) the word for earth (पृथिवी) is derived from the root meaning “to spread” (प्रथनात्), but who spread it (कः एनाम् अप्रथिष्यत्) and what was its base (किम् आचारः च)? (We reply that) it is indeed appears spread out (अथ वै दर्शनेन पृथुः), even it has not be spread by anyone (अन्यैः अपि अप्रथिता चेत्). Furthermore (अथ अपि) (if there is an objection to this) then all word derivations (सर्वे एव दृष्टप्रवादाः) can be refuted (उपालभ्यन्ते).

यथो एतत्पदेभ्यः पदेतरार्धान्त्सञ्चस्कारेति योऽनन्वितेऽर्थे सञ्चस्कार स तेन गर्ह्यः । सैषा पुरुषगर्हा न शास्त्रगर्हा इति ।

As to the observation that (Śākaṭāyana) derived words (सञ्चस्कार) by taking parts from words (पदेभ्यः पदेतरार्धान्) and deriving them (from verbs) even when the meanings are irrelevant (अनन्विते अर्थे) and the modifications are not according to rules (अप्रादेशिके विकारे), (we reply that) he should be blamed because of that (सः तेन गर्ह्यः). And this is a blame attached to one person (सा एषा पुरुषगर्हा) only, and not a blaming of the science (of etymology) (शास्त्रगर्हा इति).

यथो एतदपरस्माद् भावात्पूर्वस्य प्रदेशो न उपपद्यत इति पश्यामः पूर्वोत्पन्नानां सत्त्वानामपरस्माद्भावान्नामधेयप्रतिलम्भमेकेषां नैकेषां यथा बिल्वादो लम्बचूडक इति ।
बिल्वं भरणाद्वा भेदनाद्वा ॥ १.१४ ॥

As to the observation (यथो एतद्) that it is not correct (न उपपद्यते) to derive something which came earlier (पूर्वस्य प्रदेशः) based on something which comes later (अपरस्मात् भावात्) , we see that (इति पश्यामः) in some cases (एकेषाम्) the names of things that came into being first (पूर्वोत्पन्ननाम् सत्त्वनाम्) are based on actions performed later (अपरस्मात् भावात् नामधेयप्रतिलम्भम्) , and not in the case of others (न एकेषाम्), such as (यथा) बिल्वादः (one who eats bilva – woodpecker), and लम्बचूडकः (one who has long locks). (In these cases the activity comes after the being is born, but the name can be still derived from the activity). The word bilva (बिल्वम्) comes from the root to mean “to support” (भरणात्) or “to split” (भेदनात्).


Nirukta     Nirukta1.13     Nirukta1.15
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