Nirukta1.17

अथापीदमन्तरेण पदविभागो न विद्यते ।

Furthermore (अथ अपि) without this (इदम् अन्तरेण) (Nirukta) it is not possible to resolve a pada (पदविभागः न भवति) (in the padapāṭha).

अव॒साय॑ प॒द्वते॑ रुद्र मृळ (ऋ० १०.१६९.१) । इति । पद्वदवसं गावः पथ्यदनम् । अवतेर्गत्यर्थस्यासो नामकरणः । तस्मान्नावगृह्णन्ति ।

O Rudra (रुद्र)! Be gracious (मृळ) towards the footed (पद्वते) (givers of) nourishment (i.e. cows) during a journey (अवसाय). Cows (गावः) are footed (पद्वत्) providers of nourishment (अवसम्), i.e. food (अदम्) to be consumed on the path (पथि). The derivation (नामकरणः) (of अवसम्) is by adding the suffix अस् (असः) to the root अव् (अवतेः) taken to mean “to move” (गत्यर्थः). Therefore (being a कृदन्तः) there is no separation (of the individual parts) (तस्मात् न अवगृह्णन्ति) (in the padapāṭha).

Notes

  • The root अव् has many meanings as is evidenced by the entry in the dhātupāṭha – अव रक्षण-गति-कान्ति-प्रीति-तृप्ति-अवगम-प्रवेश-श्रवण-स्वाम्यर्थयाचन-क्रियेच्छा-दीप्त्यवाप्त्यालिङ्गन-हिंसा-दान-भाग-वृद्धिषु
  • The padapāṭha of अव॒साय॑ प॒द्वते॑ रुद्र मृळ is अ॒व॒साय॑ । प॒त्ऽवते॑ । रु॒द्र॒ । मृ॒ळ॒ ॥

अ॒व॒सायाश्वा॑न् (ऋ० १.१०४.१) इति स्यतिरुपसृष्टो विमोचने । तस्मादवगृह्णन्ति ।

Having released (अवसाय) the horses (अश्वान्). (Here अवसाय) is derived from the root षो अन्तकर्मणि (दिवादिः) (स्यतिः) used with the upasarga (उपसृष्टः) (अव) in the sense of “to release” (विमोचने). Therefore (तस्मात्) (in the padapāṭha) the upasarga is separated (अवगृह्णन्ति).

Notes

  • The padapāṭha of अ॒व॒सायाश्वा॑न् is अ॒व॒ऽसाय॑ । अश्वा॑न् । In this case अव is separated out in the padapāṭha because it is an upasarga
  • The conclusion is that the padapāṭha (which depends on the derivation of words) cannot be made without a knowledge of etymology (i.e. the Nirukta)

दू॒तो निर्ऋ॑त्या इ॒दमा॑ज॒गाम॑ (ऋ० १०.१६५.१) इति । पञ्चम्यर्थप्रेक्षा वा । षष्ठ्यरथप्रेक्षा वा । आःकारान्तम् ।

The messenger of death (निर्ऋत्याः दूतः) has come here (इदम् आजगाम). (The word निर्ऋत्याः) ending in आः (आःकारान्तम्), can be considered to be in the fifth (ablative) case (पञ्चम्यर्थप्रेक्षा) or the sixth (possessive) case (षष्ठ्यरथप्रेक्षा वा)

Notes

  • The padapāṭha is दू॒तः । निःऽऋ॑त्याः । इ॒दम् । आ॒ऽज॒गाम॑ ।
  • निर्ऋतिः is goddess of misfortune or death
  • If निर्ऋत्याः is interpreted as पञ्चमी then the meaning would be “the messenger from Nirṛti“, if as षष्ठी then the meaning would be “the messenger of Nirṛti

प॒रो निर्ऋ॑त्या॒ आ च॑क्ष्व (ऋ० १०.१६४.१) । इति । चतुर्थ्यर्थप्रेक्षा । ऐकारान्तम् ।

(Giver of bad dreams!) Make this known (आ चक्ष्व) to the far away Nirṛti (परः निर्ऋत्यै) (that she should not bother us). (Here the word Nirṛti) is in the fourth (dative) case (चतुर्थ्यर्थप्रेक्षा) because it ends in ऐ (ऐकारान्तम्).

Note: The padapāṭha is प॒रः । निःऽऋ॑त्यै । आ । च॒क्ष्व॒ ।

In summary, it is not possible to make the correct padapāṭha without a knowledge of etymology.

परः सन्निकर्षः संहिता । पदप्रकृतिः संहिता । पदप्रकृतीनि सर्वचरणानां पार्षदानि ।

Saṃhitā (संहिता) (is defined as the) extreme adjacency (परः सन्निकर्षः) (of spoken sounds). (Another definition is) Saṃhitā (संहिता) is the original form of the padas (पदप्रकृतिः). The grammatical treatises (पार्षदानि) of all the branches (सर्वचरणानां) (of the Veda) are based on the padas (पदप्रकृतीनि) (i.e. the individual words).

Notes

  • परः सन्निकर्षः संहिता was later adapted by Pāṇini in the Aṣṭādhyāyī as (1.4.109)
  • पदप्रकृतिः संहिता appears in the Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya as संहिता पदप्रकृतिः (ऋ० प्रा० २.१)
  • Durgacārya gives two ways of interpreting पदप्रकृतिः – “the original form of the padas” (पदानां या प्रकृतिः सा) (because the padas are derived from the Saṃhitā); or “that of which the padas are the original form” (पदानि प्रकृतिरस्याः सा) (because the Saṃhitā is created by stringing together padas)
  • पार्षदानि mean Prātiśākhyas according to Durgacārya

अथापि याज्ञे दैवतेन बहवः प्रदेशा भवन्ति । तदेतेनोपेक्षितव्यम् । ते चेद् ब्रूयुर्लिङ्गज्ञा अत्र स्म इति ।

Furthermore (अथ अपि) , in the sacrificial procedures (याज्ञे) there are several injunctions (बहवः प्रदेशा भवन्ति) based on the devatā (दैवतेन) (that is addressed). That (तत्) can be known (उपेक्षितव्यम्) by this (एतेन) (Nirukta). If they (the performers) say (ते चेत् ब्रूयुः), thus (इति) “In this matter, we are knowledgeable about the characteristics (अत्र लिङ्गज्ञाः स्मः)” (then consider the following mantra):

Note: Some people think that they don’t need the Nirukta for the purpose of determining the devatā of a mantra because the devatā can be easily determined by the characteristics (such as a name) indicated in the mantra. Addressing such people, Yāska asks them to consider the following verse

इन्द्रं॒ न त्वा॒ शव॑सा दे॒वता॑ वा॒युं पृ॑णन्ति (ऋ० ६.४.७) । इति । वायुलिङ्गं चेन्द्रलिङ्गं चाग्नेये मन्त्रे ।

They delight you (त्वा देवता पृणन्ति) who are like Indra (इन्द्रं न) and the swift Vāyu (शवसा वायुम्). Here the characteristics (i.e. names) of Vāyu (वायुलिङ्गम्) and Indra (च इन्द्रलिङ्गम्) are found in this mantra (which is actually) addressed to Agni (आग्नेये मन्त्रे) . (Therefore the presence of characteristics does not necessarily indicate the devatā of the mantra).

अ॒ग्निरि॑व मन्यो त्विषि॒तः स॑हस्व (ऋ० १०.८४.२) । इति । तथाग्निर्मान्यवे मन्त्रे । त्विषितो ज्वलित: । त्विषिरित्यप्यस्य दीप्तिनाम भवति ।

O Manyu (मन्यो), blazing like Agni (अग्निः इव त्विषितः), subdue (सहस्व) (our enemies). Here the characteristic (name) of Agni (अग्निः) is present in a mantra addressed to Manyu (मान्यवे मन्त्रे). त्विषितः means flaming (ज्वलितः). The word dīpti (दीप्तिनाम) is another name for tviṣi (त्विषिः इति अपि अस्य).

Note: The complete mantra is here.

अथापि ज्ञानप्रशंसा भवति । अज्ञाननिन्दा च ॥ १.१७ ॥

Furthermore (अथ अपि) there is praise for knowledge (ज्ञानप्रशंसा भवति) and censure of ignorance (अज्ञाननिन्दा च).


Nirukta     Nirukta1.16     Nirukta1.18
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